Best Caffeine Free Pre-Workout For Clean Energy Boost 2020

Maximize your exercise performance without the caffeine crash or jittery brain-drain.

When it comes to stimulants and the best pre workout supplements, there’s really no contest: everyone loves caffeine.

Sure, in our Adderall age, there are certainly more powerful stimulants available. However, for a more sustainable headrush with a limited risk of long-term issues, caffeine remains a reasonable choice for boosting performance, both mentally and physically and caffeine free pre workouts are great for this.

Because caffeine is associated with “feel good” performance enhancement, many pre-workout supplements offer generous amounts of caffeine in their formulas, as well as really great vitamins and minerals. However, many of these same supplements tend to mask their poor-quality ingredient forms and overall ineffectiveness with caffeine megadoses, making these failed supplements for those looking for a good caffeine free pre workout supplement.

A few common problems with these cheap, weak supplements include:

  • Jitters related to excess stimulation
  • Poor absorption due to excess caffeine
  • Low-grade creatine forms linked to gastric distress
  • Unhealthy, pointless synthetic flavors and artificial additives

And more. In other words, caffeine isn’t the only problem with today’s standard pre-workout formula; although, it does often distinguish effective caffeine free pre-workout stacks from ineffective formulas.

As a reliable “dopaminergic” brain booster, caffeine can be used to trick consumers into thinking an inferior, cheap pre-workout supplement is working as they misattribute the noticeable “feel good” feelings of caffeine to the formula’s efficacy.

In this guide, we cover the advantages of avoiding caffeine in your pre-workout stack, as well as how you can optimize your with the best stim-free ingredients.

But before diving into all of that, here is a deep-dive analysis of Performance Lab® Pre, the best all-in-one caffeine free pre workout.

Best Pre-Workout Without Caffeine:
Performance Lab® Pre

Performance Lab® Pre is a zero-calorie, caffeine-free pre-workout supplement with a unique beast-mode-in-a-bottle formula design making this one of the best around.

Substituting the standard, additive-heavy pre-workout formula design with a clean NutriCaps® delivery system, this substitutes the typical stimulants found in pre-workout stacks with organic energy-boosting ingredients and other all-natural ergogenic aids to make this a great caffeine free pre workout.

Altogether, Performance Lab® Pre works by:

  • Boosting nitric oxide (N.O.) levels to support enhanced muscular blood flow and oxygenation, priming the “muscle pump” feel of every great workout.
  • Saturating muscle tissue with additional creatine, the bodybuilder’s go-to source for stim-free organic ATP-stimulated muscle energy and endurance.
  • Prolonging endurance by buffering muscle acid buildup and replenishing hard-working muscles with hydrating electrolytes.
  • Protecting against oxidative stress and protein-damaging advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) for early muscle recovery support.

And more. Synergizing all the caffeine-free pre-workout ingredients in a capsule formula, SPORT Pre is an ultramodern athletic supercharger for the ultramodern athlete.

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® Pre Here

Formula Analysis

  • Sodium (from Himalayan Pink Salt), 140 mg
  • NutriGenesis® Iron+,5 mg
  • Setria® Performance Blend (L-Citrulline + L-Glutathione), 2200 mg
  • Creapure® pH10 Creatine, 1250 mg
  • CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine, 800 mg
  • Maritime Pine Bark Extract (95% proanthocyanidins), 100 mg
  • Himalayan Pink Salt, 350 mg

Performance Lab® Pre upgrades strength and muscle growth with a unique combination of highly potent, highly bioavailable, and caffeine free pre-workout ingredients.

Compared to the standard hyper-caffeinated pre-workout supplements lining the shelves, this is a smarter, cleaner stack that provides a natural boost with all-natural, stim-free ingredients.

The game-plan here is simple:

  1. Prime muscle tissue for high-intensity workouts and workout performance.
  2. Protect muscle tissue against the harm of high-intensity work.

strong man

This push-pull combination of “priming” and “protecting” muscle tissue is what makes Performance Lab® Pre such an effective pre-workout stack for long-term athletic gains. By simultaneously heightening your muscle capacity for high-interval work while neutralizing the protein-damaging consequences (e.g., oxidative stress, lactic acid, etc.) of high-intensity exercise, Pre helps you step up your game without immediately burning out and caffeine free side effects from caffeine free pre workout supplements.

This is further emphasized by Pre’s decision to avoid caffeine, thereby completely removing the risk of the infamous post-energy crash attendant upon caffeine use.

Inside and out, this caffeine free pre workout is a stim-free, synthetic-free, soy-free, allergen-free, non-GMO, eco-friendly, vegan-friendly, and caffeine free pre-workout supplements stack designed to truly maximize your athletic fitness and workout performance.

What’s more, Pre’s formula comes packed in patented NutriCaps® capsules constructed out of fermented tapioca (pullulan), switching up the method of administration from powder to pill. This comes with the upside of removing all the artificial sweeteners, additives, preservatives, etc. typically found in powder supplements that wreak absolute mayhem on the digestive tract.

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® Pre Here

Stack with Performance Lab® Post + Maintain

To maintain consistent progress with your anabolic gains, fat loss, and other fitness-related goals, stacking a caffeine free pre workout supplement with a post-workout supplement and a “rest day” stack can help. A more complete Performance Lab® SPORT workout stack looks something like this:

  • Pre – a caffeine-free pre-workout enhancer designed to boost nitric oxide (N.O.), muscle strength, endurance, and tissue protection.
  • Post – a clean “sport-drink-in-a-capsule” post-workout formula designed to promote anabolic muscle gains and protect against muscle breakdown.
  • Maintain – an anabolic muscle nourishment formula designed to restore depleted muscle tissue on rest day for maximum recovery.

Here are the formula breakdowns of Performance Lab® Post and Performance Lab® Maintain, respectively:

Performance Lab® Post Formula Analysis

  • Sodium (from Himalayan Pink Salt), 140 mg
  • NutriGenesis® Potassium+, 25 mg
  • Creapure® pH10 Creatine, 1750 mg
  • SR CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine, 1200 mg
  • Ajipure® L-Glutamine, 600 mg
  • P40p™ Pomegranate Extract, 100 mg
  • Himalayan Pink Salt, 350 mg

Keep the train rolling by stacking Pre with Post, an advanced post-workout formula for quicker muscle repair and recovery feeding off of the great caffeine free pre workout.

With SPORT Pre’s creatine supply fueling workouts, Performance Lab® Post further replenishes levels designated for post-exercise repair, recovery, and growth making this one of the best recovery supplements around. As one study in 2013 observed, post-workout supplementation was found effective at improving workout performance, mental focus, body composition and strength.[1]

strong man

Additionally, Pre supplies sustained-release beta-alanine for fast-twitch muscle recovery, a pure L-glutamine form for muscle anabolism and immunity, and pomegranate extract to combat oxidative stress (free radicals), making vitamins and minerals essential in this mix for an energy boost and great pump.

Altogether, the benefits of Post include:

  • Protection against muscle catabolism (breakdown)
  • Promotion of robust growth and fast recovery
  • Replenishment of depleted energy and nutrients

Similar to Pre, Post comes packages in clean, prebiotic-infused NutriCaps® capsules, ensuring greater nutrient absorption.

Taken consistently with consistent exercise and adequate rest, SPORT Post can help you get the most results in muscle building and lean muscle with minimal muscle fatigue and soreness.

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® Post Here

Performance Lab® Maintain Formula Analysis

  • NutriGenesis® Iron+,5 mg
  • Creapure® pH10 Creatine, 3000 mg
  • SR CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine, 1600 mg

Filling a void left by most supplement manufacturers, Maintain provides a muscle-reloading formula cut down the basics required for rest-day recovery and growth that works well when paired with a caffeine free pre workout.

Uniquely designed to pair with Pre and Post, Maintain offers an inbetweener “maintenance” stack to help you build stronger muscles faster on rest day, without unnecessarily loading you up on ergogenics intended for acute enhancement while being a solid caffeine free pre workout.

Because creatine must accumulate in muscle tissue to reach peak effect, only taking it during workout days may pose a problem. Not to mention that taking too much creatine and beta-alanine all at once to compensate for not supplementing on off days runs the risks of:

  • Gastric distress
  • Bloating
  • Uncomfortable tingling
  • Incomplete absorption

Combined, Pre + Post + Maintain works as a convenient solution for getting the consistent intake requirements required to produce the greatest muscle + strength gains from your workout regimen.

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® Maintain Here.

To get a better understanding of how a caffeine-free pre-workout can help you maximize your workouts, jump down to the Top 5 best caffeine free pre-workout ingredients list below.

The World’s Favorite Drug: Caffeine

Coffee, tea, soda, energy drinks, energy shots, pre workout supplements, fat loss supplements, nootropic supplements, energy-boosting gum pack—more and more, it seems like caffeine is sneaking its way into everything these days. And from a seller’s point of view, this makes sense: caffeine makes people feel great, and people buy things that make them feel good.

  • What’s more, caffeine makes people feel good in a reliably way that’s relatively safe to other habit-forming stimulants and quote-unquote “drugs.”

As a naturally occurring compound, caffeine is found in roughly sixty different plant species, including:[2]

  • Coffee Beans
  • Tea Leaves
  • Cocoa Beans
  • Kola Nuts
  • Yerba Maté
  • Guarana Berries
  • Guayusa
  • Yaupon Holly

Which is interesting and all, but the more important question here is:

caffeine

What Exactly is Caffeine?

Caffeine, or 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (if you want to get fancy with it), is an alkaloid, which means that its chemical structure is predominated by nitrogen. Pure caffeine is highly water-soluble and can, thus, act rapidly on the brain and body after ingestion without aid of fatty foods (as is the case with fat-soluble compounds).[3] Those sensitive to this strong stimulant would require a caffeine free pre workout for muscle building and lean muscle.

Structurally, caffeine is similar to adenosine, a compound that binds with adenosine receptors to induce cognitive drowsiness and fatigue. Which gives us the perfect segue into the more important question:

What Exactly does Caffeine do?

Caffeine, as a compound structurally similar to adenosine, binds to adenosine receptors to block the drowsiness of adenosine. In other words, caffeine achieves its stimulatory properties on the central nervous system (CNS) through its inhibitory effects on adenosine, resulting in a boost on:

  • Catecholamines – dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, etc.[4]
  • Adrenal Activity – encouraging the release of stress hormone cortisol.[5]
  • Dopamine Signaling – in high dosages (300+ mg), caffeine may increase the availability of dopamine receptors.[6]

The Pros vs. Cons of Caffeine for Exercise

Several factors largely determine the advantageous vs. disadvantageous use of caffeine or caffeine free pre workout supplements for the best performance enhancement. However, perhaps the two most important factors are:

  • Dosage – the amount of caffeine per serving
  • Timing – when you take caffeine (i.e., morning or night?)
  • Caffeine Sensitivity – your personal tolerance to stimulants

Some people are more sensitive to caffeine than others, and therefore they require smaller dosages to reach peak effect. Others may feel like they need to guzzle a significant amount of caffeine just to reach their cognitive baseline so knowing the pros and cons is huge.

Pro #1 – Cognitive Performance

As a dopaminergic stimulant, caffeine may heighten mood and intensity for greater mental motivation in the gym. Taken prior to exercise, caffeine may help ward off mental fatigue in service of a more alert, more ready mindset.

  • Study: in a placebo-controlled study on caffeine consumption on judo athletes, morning caffeine ingestion was suggested to have “ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance, increase anxiety and vigor, and decrease the simple reaction time.”[7]

Con #1 – Anxiety, Nervousness, and Jitteriness

Conversely, the mood- and intensity-boosting advantages of caffeine may also tip over into cognitive impairment by promoting anxiety, nervousness, and jitteriness, which is where a great caffeine free pre workout would come in handy. Encouraging mental arousal, caffeine may often encourage too much arousal, throwing the mind into a scatterbrained state of anxiety that can be detrimental to athletic performance that requires cool composure.

  • Study: under conditions of anxiety disorder, caffeine consumption may exacerbate anxiety symptoms, potentially as a consequence of increased sensitivity to caffeine associated with anxiety disorder.[8] Abstaining from caffeine altogether may significantly help maintain a level head under such conditions.

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Pro #2 – Thermogenic Fat Loss

In addition to boosting cognitive arousal, caffeine’s stimulatory effects also seem to boost thermogenesis, or fat burning. By encouraging the activity of “fight or flight” catecholamines and stress hormones, caffeine seems to heighten the body’s energy expenditure capacity, potentially resulting in greater fat loss results during workouts.

  • Study: in one double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100, 200, and 400 mg caffeine dosages were observed to determine what happened with thermogenic, metabolic, and cardio health measures. The results: caffeine dose-dependently increased thermogenic energy expenditure in association with increased plasma lactate and triglyceride levels.[9]

Con #2 – Poor Sleep Quality

Nothing disrupts performance, endurance, and metabolic health quite like sleep deprivation. Contributing to a wide range of metabolic disorders and performance decrements, poor sleep quality is often associated with excess caffeine use and you won’t necessarily feel these effects with a caffeine free pre workout. And the relationship between the two is a downward spiral: caffeine promotes sleep deprivation, which encourages further caffeine use, etc. etc.

  • Study: comparing the sleep disruptive effects of caffeine administered at 0, 3, and 6 hours prior to bedtime, a group of researchers observed that “caffeine taken 6 hours before bedtime has important disruptive properties on sleep and provides empirical support for sleep hygiene recommendations to refrain from substantial caffeine use for a minimum of 6 hours prior to bedtime.”[10]

Pro #3 – Vasoconstriction

Caffeine has a vasoconstrictive effect, meaning that this stimulant promotes the constriction of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow. While this sounds like a negative (as we’ll get into in “Con #3” below), caffeine’s vasoconstriction may potentially have a pain-relieving effect on headaches, namely headaches associated with excessive flow to the brain.

  • Study: as one study on caffeine’s vascular mechanisms of action suggests, “caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial,”[11] involving the association between decreased cerebral circulation and migrainous headache.

Con #3 – Vasoconstriction

One of the main reasons we take pre-workout supplements: boost circulation. And so, naturally, the vasoconstriction of caffeine are typically viewed as a negative when it comes to performance enhancement. Whether we’re talking nootropic cognitive enhancers or bodybuilder pre-workout stacks, the goal is to boost blood flow, not inhibit it and caffeine free pre workouts are great for this.

  • Study: in one 2009 study on the effects of daily caffeine use on cerebral blood flow, caffeine was shown to reduce cerebral blood flow by an average 27%,[12] which may significantly impact cognition and goes against the vasodilatory aims of pre-workout N.O. boosters.

Okay, so is Caffeine a Legitimate Performance Enhancer?

Based on the study’s compiled above, the best performance enhancement potential of caffeine significantly depends upon how much caffeine you use, your personal caffeine tolerance, and when you take caffeine (i.e., how close to bedtime) so if sensitive, a caffeine free pre workout would be the way to go.

Of course, much of this is common sense.

But with a better understanding of how caffeine affects your mental and physical performance, you may make a smarter decision as to whether or not you want a caffeine free pre-workout supplement (or any stack for that matter).

An Optional Source of Pre-Workout Caffeine: Performance Lab® Stim

With Performance Lab® Stim, a nootropic-enhanced “Caffeine 2.0” pill, you can enjoy the caffeine free pre workout benefits of Performance Lab® SPORT Pre while also having a modestly dosed source of caffeine (50mg caffeine per pill) readily available to take pre-workout or intra-workout (or whenever you need it).

Performance Lab® Stim’s formula splits into two key stacks:

  • Stack 1: caffeine + L-theanine for performance-tuned stimulation, with the latter ingredient (theanine) reducing the jittery side effects of the former (caffeine) without compromising its energy-boosting benefits.
  • Stack 2: L-tyrosine + a smart B-complex for caffeine balance and recovery, accomplished by these ingredients’ promotion of catecholamine (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine) replenishment in defense against the well-known caffeine crash and comedown.

Paired with SPORT Pre, Performance Lab® Stim grants you the option of having (or not having) a healthy, crash-free source of caffeinated performance enhancement, without the typical jittery side effects associated with stimulants.

  • Supplement Facts: NutriGenesis® Caffeine Balance B-Complex: Riboflavin+ (Vitamin B2), Vitamin B6+, Folate+ (Vitamin B9), Vitamin B12+, Natural Caffeine (from Coffea robusta seeds), Suntheanine® L-Theanine, Ajipure® L-Tyrosine

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® Stim Here

Top 5 Non-Caffeinated Pre-Workout Ingredients

Whether you’re looking at a caffeinated or caffeine free pre-workout supplement, some of the best pre-workout ingredients you need to look for include:

#1) Creatine

An organic compound highly concentrated in tissue, creatine works as precursor fuel for the natural production of ATP energy, a cleaner, more natural energy source than the stimulatory effects of caffeine. As a dietary supplement, it boosts exercise performance by:[13,14]

  • Replenishing exercise-depleted ATP energy
  • Stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
  • Buffering muscular lactic acid build-up for better endurance

Because creatine concentrates in muscle tissue, ongoing supplementation is required for creatine to reach peak saturation and, thus, peak ergogenic effect.

Best Pre-Workout Creatine: Creapure® pH10

  • Creapure® pH10 is 99.5% pure creatine monohydrate
  • pH-balanced to enhance bioavailability
  • Clean and easy-to-absorb to reduce bloating and gastric distress

#2) Beta-Alanine

A well-known sports nutrition aid, namely for the skin-tingling sensation associated with it, Beta-Alanine replenishes levels of carnosine, a dipeptide molecule, in muscle tissue, namely fast-twitch fibers for increased strength and power during high-intensity exercise. Consistently loading and maintaining, carnosine benefits performance and recuperation by:[15]

  • Delaying onset fatigue and failure
  • Enhancing overall strength and stamina
  • Neutralizing exercise-induced free radicals
  • Inhibiting advanced glycation end-products (AGEs)
  • Buffering the impact of damaging acids

And more. The strength and endurance benefits of beta-alanine are unmatched and pair incredibly well with the endurance-boosting advantages of creatine supplementation and caffeine free pre workout.

Best Pre-Workout Beta-Alanine: CarnoSyn®

  • CarnoSyn® is the only beta-alanine with NDI (New Dietary Ingredient) status
  • Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)
  • Well-backed by years of clinical research

Zottman curl

#3) L-Citrulline + L-Glutathione

L-Citrulline is an amino acid that, once absorbed, converts in the body to L-arginine, a nitric oxide (N.O.) booster that enhances muscular circulation, strength, and growth. In other words, L-citrulline works as your go-to pre-workout “muscle pump” booster and will help with mind-muscle connection.

Additionally, L-Glutathione is an antioxidant enzyme that, when paired with L-citrulline, benefits performance in a few ways. Combined, L-citrulline + L-glutathione work by:[16]

  • Promoting oxygen delivery to tissue
  • Protecting muscle against oxidative stress
  • Sustaining L-citrulline’s N.O.-boosting bioactivities
  • Improving energy and anabolism
  • Strengthening immunity against gym-related challenges

And more. Stacking these two compounds may significantly boost performance and protect against the deleterious side effects of boosted performance.

Best Pre-Workout L-Citrulline + L-Glutathione: Setria® Performance Blend

  • Setria® Performance Blend is made by Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd., a world leader in supplement development
  • Kyowa Quality® L-Citrulline is exceptionally clean and bioavailable
  • Setria® is an advanced glutathione form that pairs well with Kyowa Quality® L-Citrulline

#4) Maritime Pine Bark Extract

Formed by the harsh salty climes of the sea, maritime pine bark extract supplies proanthocyanidins, a potent class of antioxidants that:[17]

  • Promote endothelial production of nitric oxide (N.O.)
  • Protect muscle tissue during intense training
  • Boost long-term cognitive attentional performance

Look for maritime pine bark extract standardized to 95% proanthocyanidins for optimal results with this unique performance enhancing herbal extract.

#5) Himalayan Pink Salt

Hydration is key to muscle growth, and, yet, when it comes to rehydration, we tend to overlook the importance of electrolytes to sustaining healthy H2O levels. As a natural source of electrolyte trace minerals, Himalayan Pink Salt is a smart choice for restoring sweat-depleted electrolytes when taken in a pre-workout context.

Conclusion

Frankly, our caffeine options are far from limited. If you want caffeine, you can get some. Odds are you’re enjoying a hot cup (or a cold can) of caffeine right now, as you read this, so looking for a caffeine free pre workout or one with caffeine is the choice you have to make.

However, what is hard to come by is a real-deal health and fitness supplement that genuinely supports athletic health and fitness. And with its all-natural, hard-hitting ergogenics packed in its caffeine-free pre-workout formula, Performance Lab® SPORT Pre certainly fits the bill.

What’s more, Performance Lab® designs its formulas to synergistically stack on top of each other:

The point isn’t to completely force you into a caffeine-free workout but to grant you the option. Head to www.performancelab.com to see more formulas to stack with SPORT Pre.

References

  1. Antonio J, Ciccone V. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013; 10: 36.
  2. Evans J et al. Caffeine. [Updated 2020 Mar 22]. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan.
  3. Heckman MA et al. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in Foods: A Comprehensive Review on Consumption, Functionality, Safety, and Regulatory Matters. J Food Sci. 2010 Apr; 75(3): R77-87.
  4. Papadelis C et al. Effects of Mental Workload and Caffeine on Catecholamines and Blood Pressure Compared to Performance Variations. Brain Cogn. 2003 Feb; 51(1): 143-54.
  5. Lovallo WR et al. Cortisol Responses to Mental Stress, Exercise, and Meals Following Caffeine Intake in Men and Women. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Mar; 83(3): 441-7.
  6. Volkow ND et al. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Apr; 5(4): e549.
  7. Souissi M et al. Effects of Morning Caffeine Ingestion on Mood States, Simple Reaction Time, and Short-Term maximal Performance on Elite Judoists. Asian J Sports Med. 2012 Sep; 3(3): 161-168.
  8. Bruce MS, Lader M. Caffeine Abstention in the Management of Anxiety Disorders. Psychol Med. 1989 Feb; 19(1): 211-4.
  9. Astrup A et al. Caffeine: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Its Thermogenic, Metabolic, and Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 May; 51(5): 759-67.
  10. Drake C et al. Caffeine Effects on Sleep Taken 0, 3, or 6 Hours before Going to Bed. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 Nov 15; 9(11): 1195-1200.
  11. Echeverri D et al. Caffeine’s Vascular Mechanisms of Action. Int J Vasc Med. 2010; 2010: 834060.
  12. Addicott MA et al. The Effect of Daily Caffeine Use on Cerebral Blood Flow: How Much Caffeine Can We Tolerate? Hum Brain Mapp. 2009 Oct; 30(10): 3102-14.
  13. Cooper R et al. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012; 9: 33.
  14. Oliver JM et al. Oral Creatine Supplementation’s Decrease of Blood Lactate During Exhaustive, Incremental Cycling. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2013 Jun; 23(3): 252-8.
  15. Hobson RM et al. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul; 43(1): 25-37.
  16. McKinley-Barnard S et al. Combined L-citrulline and Glutathione Supplementation Increases the Concentration of Markers Indicative of Nitric Oxide Synthesis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jun 10; 12: 27.
  17. Aldret RL, Bellar D. A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study to Examine the Effects of Maritime Pine Bark Extract on Exercise Performance and Postexercise Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Muscle Soreness, and Damage. J Diet Suppl. 2020; 17(3): 309-320.