Best Testosterone Boosters for Unleashing Masculine Vitality
Testosterone boosters are everywhere, and they are designed to truly help with male health, from sex drive to building muscle mass and burning body fat. So, what are the best testosterone booster supplements for masculinity and vitality with quality ingredients?
In this article, we examine the top testosterone boosters for masculine vitality, energy and that help the most with production of testosterone: what works – and why. These are nutrients that can help balance your hormone levels that are backed by clinical studies to prove their efficacy as testosterone supplements.
How Do Testosterone Boosters Help Testosterone Levels?
Natural testosterone boosters help testosterone levels by supplying your body with the natural nutrients it needs to encourage more of the masculine hormone body state.
For example, a good testosterone booster can optimize your body to:
- Ramp up Testosterone Production
- Increase Masculine energy
- Increase Muscle Mass and Muscle Growth
- Support Athletic Performance
- Act as a mild inhibitor of the T-diminishing hormone prolactin
- Lower Body Fat
- Enhance Sex Drive
- Masculine Vitality and Fights Estrogen
- Balance Hormone Levels
However, not every T booster is capable of this, and provides rather lackluster results. In this article, we look closer at the most effective boosters on the market that will be sure to get you the most bang for your buck.
These are products and supplements which are backed by clinical studies, well-dosed, provide masculinity in a capsule, and are the best options out there for bodybuilding, low testosterone, older men and more.
Best Overall Testosterone Booster Supplement 2023
The best testosterone booster supplement on the market today, including the best testosterone supplements for overcoming Low-T levels and optimizing male vitality is Transparent Labs Vitality. This option is one that will give you all of the benefits we listed above! With so many different supplements on the market today, it may be hard to find one that supports healthy testosterone levels in the body and does that without any side effects, but luckily for you, we handpicked Transparent Labs just for you.
Transparent Labs Vitality
|Number Of Ingredients||11|
|Number of Servings||30|
|Serving Size||3 Capsules|
|Highest Dosed Ingredient||Indole-3-Carbinol and Ashwagandha (200mg)|
|Best Way To Take||Take 1 capsule three times a day with food.|
Transparent Labs Vitality is an innovative 3-in-1 natural hormone optimizing supplement that can really optimize your masculine vitality and work wonders for your overall health and performance goals. This supplement works to boost testosterone levels, and also helps to control estrogen and cortisol production so those suffering from low testosterone and even high estrogen never have to worry.
It has a powerful formula packed with amazing ingredients, from zinc to ashwagandha, this supplement sets the foundation for lean muscle gains, fat burning, strength, libido, confidence, and overall vitality to ensure your workouts, activities, and lifestyle are all enhanced. With no artificial sweeteners, coloring, or preservatives, you know Vitality is clean with proven and effective ingredients.
- Innovative 3-in-1 natural hormone optimizing supplement
- Great for boosting testosterone and controlling estrogen
- Transparent and honest label
- From a reputable company in Transparent Labs
- Premium priced option
- Only available on their website
Read our full review of Transparent Labs StrengthSeries Vitality.
What to Look for in Test Booster Supplements 2023 (For Bodybuilding and Muscle Mass)
Looking to build muscle mass, boost energy levels, and take your lifting career to the next level? Don’t worry – we compiled a list of the best testosterone booster supplement ingredients that:
Below are the top options that work the best for bodybuilding and muscle mass. They’re back by clinical studies and are the best natural options to give you the biggest return from all your hard work in the gym.
Here are our top picks:
#1. D-Aspartic Acid in Testosterone Boosters
TL;DR: DAA has been seen in multiple studies to raise testosterone. One study shows it to raise test by 42% over 12 days. Another shows it boosting T levels by an average of 30 – 60% over 90 days. It rocks.
D-Aspartic Acid is an amino acid which is ideal for natural testosterone boosting and muscle mass. It works well because it can help promote your body’s levels of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH).
LH is your body’s precursor to both growth hormone and testosterone. The more of this that you have in your system, the more support your testosterone levels have to rise. So, to get this amino acid in a testosterone supplement is always a good sign that you’re in for an effective ride.
But just how effective is D-Aspartic Acid compared to other testosterone boosters? Is it the best to boost testosterone?
In one study, men aged between 27 and 37 took D-Aspartic Acid for a period of 12 days. At the end of the study, 20 out of the 23 men that were supplementing DAA had an average increase of 42% in overall testosterone.
Three days later, without using any D-Aspartic Acid, their testosterone was still 22% higher than it had been at the start of the study.
In a similar study, men aged between 27 and 43 took D-Aspartic Acid over a period of 90 days. At the end of the 90 days, there was an average growth of 30 – 60% in overall testosterone.
D-Aspartic Acid is one of the more potent testosterone boosting supplements out there, and is a great option for those who are looking to maximize their T levels and improve muscle mass for bodybuilding. One of the better testosterone boosters on the market.
#2. Zinc (Best Mineral for Testosterone Production)
TL;DR: Studies indicate low Zinc levels appear to go hand-in-hand with low testosterone. Not only that, supplementing Zinc can help boost testosterone that has been lowered by intensive training and other factors.
Zinc is one of the most useful testosterone boosters for helping your testosterone levels with bodybuilding and muscle mass.
One of the main advantages that Zinc has, like DAA, is that this mineral can help to raise your overall levels of LH – the Luteinizing Hormone. As we’ve mentioned, fueling your LH can help with increased production and release of your growth hormone and testosterone.
The most notable study is from 2006, where a group of wrestlers were experiencing temporary low testosterone levels from training to exhaustion. When supplementing Zinc it seemed to reverse this effect and restore their T back up to their optimum levels – so they could keep training hard without the downsides. This improvement in testosterone levels not only helped them maintain their masculine vitality but also enhanced their physical strength, allowing them to perform at their best.
Another study saw that supplementing Zinc can help to raise serum testosterone levels, in those who had experienced a drop in T from dialysis.
Other studies have indicated a connection to low zinc levels and low T levels. By helping to keep you Zinc intake at an optimum level, you may be able to maintain steady and healthy T and better muscle mass.
It’s a great mineral for free testosterone and one of the main testosterone boosters to help T levels in a man. Another one of the top-tier testosterone boosters.
#3. Vitamin D3 + Vitamin K1 and K2 (Best Vitamins for Testosterone Production)
TL;DR: Numerous studies show that long-term supplementation of Vitamin D3 can help raise your levels of testosterone. Vitamin D is technically a hormone and closely linked to boosting testosterone levels – and experts believe up to 1 billion people are deficient in it!
Vitamin D is an essential vitamin vitamin to your body- and it’s also technically a hormone believe it or not! It’s a potent, natural resource that has been linked to promoting your testosterone level. Especially with Vitamin K2 and K1.
Why do we need to supplement it for bodybuilding and muscle mass? Because your body naturally absorbs it through your skin via the sun’s rays – and considering that we spend most of our time indoors, that’s not a whole lot of Vitamin D.
Experts actually believe that up to 1 billion people are deficient in Vitamin D. Not only that, studies have also found that there is a link between deficiencies in Vitamin D3 and low testosterone.
In one study, participants were made to spend more time outdoors in the summer sun. In doing so, there was a large spike noticed in their overall testosterone.
A yearlong study, involving participants supplementing Vitamin D supplements daily noticed a 20% increase in testosterone levels on average.
As it is technically a hormone – and one that many of us are deficient in – supplementing Vitamin D3 can be huge for promoting your overall testosterone.
It’s always good to supplement Vitamin D3 with Vitamin K2 and K1. Vitamin K2 and K1 can help guide the added calcium to your bones, for a healthier skeleton and joints, as well helping to increase testosterone levels.
Best Testosterone Booster Ingredients For Males Over 40
As you start to get older, your testosterone levels begin to drop. This typically begins after 30, with your testosterone levels declining around 1% every year, and at first, the effects are not that noticeable – but sooner or later the effects start to show. Couple that with the lifestyle changes you face at that age – running a family, more responsibility and generally stress, stress, stress! It’s a cocktail of disaster for your T levels.
However, there are natural ingredients out there which can help with testosterone production, as well as managing your levels of stress and promoting overall health, which are crucial for men over 40. Combined, this can give you a potent testosterone booster supplement which can not only help your T levels – but can also help your mindset as well. Helping to promote better hormonal balance and more effective lifestyle management. All of these natural ingredients, including Vitamin B5, Garlic Extract, and Black Pepper Extract (95% Piperine), are backed by abundant scientific evidence of their ability to combat the symptoms associated with age-related testosterone deficiency. Packed with antioxidants, adaptogens, vitamins, and botanicals, TestoPrime plays a crucial role in testosterone synthesis, the intricate process by which the male body produces potent testosterone booster. D-Aspartic acid has a direct association with boosting testosterone and this fact is backed by several clinical trials. Testo-Max has it in higher doses than many other supplements. Vitamin D and magnesium work together to help the body absorb nutrients more efficiently. This helps in strengthening bones and muscles and improves the potency of the supplement further. The difference is that this compound is believed to be more efficacious than the regular fenugreek extract. The supplement uses a US-patented compound known as Protodioscin found in Tribulus terrestris L.
That being said, there are some different supplements you can look at as a testosterone booster to help combat the effects you may start to feel as you age!
#1. Ashwagandha (as a Testosterone Booster)
TL;DR: Ashwagandha is arguably one of the most potent herbs when it comes to raising testosterone levels. KSM-66 Ashwagandha is the best and can help raise testosterone, muscles mass and even lower stress.
There are numerous ways that this herb can help improve your levels of T. It can help both directly and indirectly. Personally, we see it as one of the best testosterone boosters all around, but for men over 40 in particular.
Indirectly, Ashwagandha can help lower cortisol, your body’s stress hormone. When your cortisol levels are higher, your testosterone levels drop. This is how your body manages the hormones. Ashwagandha has been seen in clinical studies to help reduce levels of the stress hormone, and by extension increase testosterone levels.
Lowering stress is ideal for the over 40s as this is typically a harder point in your life with children, work, aging, and more factors that create low testosterone levels.
In another study, Ashwagandha was seen to promote muscle mass and even reduce body fat by 3.5% compared to the placebo group.
The best form of Ashwagandha is definitely KSM-66. There’s an endless list of clinical studies supporting the KSM-66 strain. It’s seen to help stress, low testosterone levels, endurance, strength, sex drive, weight management, memory, anti-aging, sleep and more.
It’s one of the finest natural testosterone boosting supplements.
#2. Magnesium (for Free T Levels)
TL;DR: You should be looking to get a good amount of Magnesium in your testosterone booster. It’s effective for protecting your free testosterone and maintaining your overall T levels.
Magnesium is one of the better minerals out there for men over 40 in regards to testosterone levels. It’s effective for helping raise your levels of free testosterone.
Free testosterone is the amount of testosterone that is freely circulating throughout your body. The threat to this type of testosterone is Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). SHBG binds to the free testosterone in your system, and strips it of its anabolic potency. The result is that it reduces your overall levels of free testosterone, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, muscle loss, and low libido. Pituitary gland disorders or testicular dysfunction can also contribute to dangerously low testosterone levels, termed hypogonadism, which can further impact muscle mass, bone density, and libido. Clinically, levels below 300 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) are often considered suboptimal. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a medical treatment that can be used to address low testosterone levels and alleviate symptoms such as fatigue, low libido, and muscle loss. It can be administered through injections, patches, gels, or oral medications. Proper medical supervision is crucial to mitigate potential side effects.
Supplementing Magnesium can help to minimize this problem. Studies show that taking Magnesium can help to reduce the impact of SHBG. Magnesium does this by inhibiting the SHBG, which helps stop it from binding to your free flowing testosterone.
#3. Mucuna Pruriens (Leans out Chest Muscle)
TL;DR: Mucuna Pruriens can help raise testosterone, lower stress, fight man boobs and even raise dopamine. What more could you want?
Mucuna Pruriens are a great testosterone booster for males over 40. The main active ingredient that matters most in Mucuna Pruriens is L-DOPA.
L-DOPA can raise your brain’s level of dopamine which can offer a combination of good effects including reducing levels of the stress hormone cortisol, improving erections, maximizing libido and generally making you feel better.
What it can also do is increase your levels of GnRH – that’s gonadotropic-releasing hormone. This can help to raise your body’s levels of the Luteinzing Hormone. As we’ve mentioned this is your body’s precursor to both growth hormone, and testosterone.
Another benefit of L-DOPA in Mucuna Pruriens is that it can help reduce your overall levels of prolactin in your body. Prolactin is the hormone in your body which is linked to causing soft breast tissue – or man boobs – which is more of a risk as you get older.
Best Testosterone Booster For Men Over 50 (Best Ingredients)
Lower testosterone is an issue in older men, that is no secret. It’s a natural thing to deal with – but that doesn’t mean you have to settle for it. There are plenty of natural options out there which can help to fight the process and allow you to maintain (and in some cases raise) as much testosterone as possible at over 50. Changes in sexual function, such as reduced sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, can occur as a result of lower testosterone levels in aging men. A blood test is often used to diagnose symptoms of low testosterone in men experiencing these symptoms. Testosterone therapy, which is commonly used to address sexual health issues in older men, might sound promising as you age, but it’s important to know the risks before you decide.
However, testosterone isn’t the only problem. Another factor from being older men is a rise in estrogen – the female hormone. This can unbalance your hormones and create more issues for your overall masculine health and improve sex drive.
Below, we have compiled a list of what we believe to be the best testosterone boosters for men over 50. These can help if your testosterone levels are low, or even if you are struggling from a rise in estrogen.
#1. Boron (Top Mineral for Fighting Estrogen)
TL;DR: Boron is great for both raising testosterone, and lowering estrogen. This is ideal as those are big factors that need support as you get older.
Boron makes our list of the top testosterone boosters for men over 50 because it has been clinically proven to do 2 things: boost testosterone, and lower estrogen.
A full review of Boron in 2015 in the IMCJ covered a lot of the mineral’s overall effects, with the main takeaways being that it can help increase free testosterone by nearly 25%. It can also almost have the amount of estradiol (estrogen) in your system, and even allow more free testosterone to bond with proteins in your blood which can help as you age.
With all that considered, this makes it a great choice as a testosterone booster for men over 50. It can tackle many of the age-related factors that affect T as you get older. Including allowing for more protein binding and reducing growing levels of estrogen.
Boron has even been seen to help in these areas with subjects who are suffering from low testosterone. It’s an effective, natural mineral for T levels.
#2. Luteolin (Top Nutrient for Fighting Estrogen)
TL;DR: Luteolin can help lower estrogen – which becomes a much bigger problem as you get older.
The final testosterone booster that we’ll be covering in our list is Luteolin. It is an antioxidant found in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges. While it is not technically a testosterone booster, Luteolin is a great natural aromatase inhibitor.
The aromatase enzyme is an enzyme in your blood which converts your testosterone into estrogen. As you get older, this enzyme becomes more active, converting more T into estrogen. This is definitely not what you want for hormone optimization.
Studies have shown that supplementing Luteolin can potentially inhibit estrogen biosynthesis – which could in turn reduce your overall levels of the female hormone. As you get older and your estrogen levels rise, and your T levels decline – it’s smart to get all the help you can get. Luteolin has some promising studies behind it and a great tool to help deter a rise in estrogen.
Best Natural Testosterone Booster Supplements 2023
As you can see, there are plenty of good options out there when it comes to maximizing your overall testosterone and hormone levels.
When it comes to which test booster is the most effective though – we have to give it to Transparent Labs Vitality. Individually, many of the ingredients we’ve covered here are great for boosting testosterone – however, together, they are on another level. That’s what you get with Transparent Labs Vitality.
You get solid, clinically-backed, well-dosed ingredients all together in one stacked out supplement. It even uses KSM-66 Ashwagandha, which is the most clinically proven form of the herb.
The vitamins and minerals in Transparent Labs Vitality – making them nature-identical and super easy for your body to absorb. The clinical studies for all the ingredients in Testo Lab Pro are off the charts. The health benefits range from boosting muscle for a bodybuilder, to giving an energy boost to older men.
It hits all the marks, and we recommend to anyone looking for a natural, and above all, effective test booster.
You can find out more by visiting the Testo lab Pro site!
Testosterone Boosting Foods / Not Supplements
Testosterone boosters aren’t everything. Eating right and exercising goes a long way too. Below, we’ve compiled a list of some of the best testosterone boosting foods out there that you should add to your diet to maximize your overall progress.
Here’s a shortlist of the foods that could help you the most.
Tuna as a Testosterone Booster
Tuna contains a rich source of Vitamin D. Vitamin D, as you’ll know by now, is technically a hormone which has close links to raising testosterone levels.
Due to the mercury content, moderation is key with a food like this. Two to three servings a week should be enough for you to get a healthy supply of this vitamin from your food.
Other fish options that contain good amounts of this vitamin would be salmon or sardines. There’s plenty of options.
Milk as a Testosterone Booster
Milk is another good source of Vitamin D. Mostly touted for it’s ability to help bones and muscles through its high calcium and protein content, many people forget that it also contains a good amount of Vitamin D.
Again, with a nice amount of D in here, milk can help support a rise in your testosterone levels.
Pro-tip: Opting for a lower fat milk like skimmed or semi-skimmed may be a wise idea to avoid saturated fat content.
Egg Yolks as a Testosterone Booster
Again, another rich source of Vitamin D. Eggs can help raise testosterone levels by offering a good amount of this natural vitamin.
Not only that, eggs are also an effective source of healthy cholesterol. This can help support the leydig cells in your body to promote overall testosterone.
An egg a day is a good way to get the health benefits from this food, without overdoing it.
Fortified Cereals as a Testosterone Booster
Yes you read that right, cereals to boost testosterone. Cereals that have been fortified with Vitamin D can be ideal for helping low testosterone. Getting fortified cereals into your diet can help increase your overall vitamin D and increase testosterone levels.
These types of cereals also pack vitamins and minerals that offer general health benefits to keep you going.
Oysters for Low Test
Unlike most of the other food we’ve mentioned, oysters are good for testosterone due to their level of zinc.
Zinc is a great example of testosterone boosting supplements, as it can increase your levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH), which is your body’s precursor to both growth hormone and testosterone.
Beef is a red meat that you shouldn’t over-consume. However, in moderate amounts it can be fine for your health – and even beneficial to your testosterone. Beef contains a good amount of Zinc and Vitamin D, which can both contribute as testosterone boosting supplements.
Finally, a nice plant-based testosterone booster in our list of T boosting foods. Beans, lentils, chickpeas and more all contain a good amount of Zinc. It’s a nice natural testosterone booster and an easy one to have with numerous meals to improve your low testosterone levels and give yourself a good amount of protein.
Conclusion: What Are The Best Natural Testosterone Boosters?
The best natural testosterone boosters are a mix of numerous clinically proven herbs, vitamins and minerals. These are all options which have been seen in studies to help tilt the hormonal balance in your body in favor of testosterone.
Ideally, you want a supplement that combines all of these natural ingredients into one easy stack. That’s why we’ve put Transparent Labs Vitality at the top of our list, as it contains all of these natural ingredients in high dosages with patented branded options that were featured in the original studies (like KSM-66 Ashwagandha).
Not only that, it’s aggressively clean with no artificial additives, or synthetic ingredients. It’s also totally vegan, and uses nature-identical vitamins and minerals to maximize absorption and effectiveness.
If you’re wondering what the top testosterone booster on the market at the moment is – let us answer it for you: Transparent Labs Vitality. Solid nutrient profile, clinically-effective dosages, and clean as a whistle. What more could you want? You can learn more by visiting their website below:
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*Images courtesy of Envato
- D-Aspartic Acid Studies
Topo E, Soricelli A, D’Aniello A, Ronsini S, D’Aniello G. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Oct 27;7:120. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-120. PMID: 19860889; PMCID: PMC2774316.
D’Aniello, S. Ronsini, T. Notari, N. Grieco, V. Infante, N. D’Angel, F. Mascia, M. Fiore, G. Fisher and A. D’Aniello, “D-Aspartate, a Key Element for the Improvement of Sperm Quality,” Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 45-53. doi: 10.4236/asm.2012.24008.
- Zinc Studies
Kilic M, Baltaci AK, Gunay M, Gökbel H, Okudan N, Cicioglu I. The effect of exhaustion exercise on thyroid hormones and testosterone levels of elite athletes receiving oral zinc. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):247-52. PMID: 16648789.
Jalali GR, Roozbeh J, Mohammadzadeh A, Sharifian M, Sagheb MM, Hamidian Jahromi A, Shabani S, Ghaffarpasand F, Afshariani R. Impact of oral zinc therapy on the level of sex hormones in male patients on hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2010 May;32(4):417-9. doi: 10.3109/08860221003706958. PMID: 20446777.
Fallah A, Mohammad-Hasani A, Colagar AH. Zinc is an Essential Element for Male Fertility: A Review of Zn Roles in Men’s Health, Germination, Sperm Quality, and Fertilization. J Reprod Infertil. 2018;19(2):69-81.
- Vitamin D Studies
Sizar O, Khare S, Goyal A, et al. Vitamin D Deficiency. [Updated 2020 Jul 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-.
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Pilz S, Frisch S, Koertke H, Kuhn J, Dreier J, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Wehr E, Zittermann A. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar;43(3):223-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854. Epub 2010 Dec 10. PMID: 21154195.
- Ashwagandha Studies
Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. “A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults.” Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul-Sep;34(3):255-262. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.1060
Wankhede S et al. “Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial.” JISSN. 2015;12:43. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-010
- Magnesium Studies
Excoffon L, Guillaume YC, Woronoff-Lemsi MC, André C. Magnesium effect on testosterone-SHBG association studied by a novel molecular chromatography approach. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009 Feb 20;49(2):175-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2008.10.041. Epub 2008 Nov 5. PMID: 19095394.
- Mucuna Pruriens Studies
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Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, Shankhwar SN, Rajender S, Jaiswar SP. Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Fertil Steril. 2009 Dec;92(6):1934-40. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09.045. Epub 2008 Oct 29. PMID: 18973898.
Shukla KK, Mahdi AA, Ahmad MK, Jaiswar SP, Shankwar SN, Tiwari SC. Mucuna pruriens Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Semen in Infertile Men. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010;7(1):137-144. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem171
van der Gugten AA, Sahuleka PC, van Galen GH, Kwa HG. Prolactin inhibition test with L-dopa: decrease and restoration of plasma prolactin levels in the rat by a peripheral process. J Endocrinol. 1976 Mar;68(3):369-81. doi: 10.1677/joe.0.0680369. PMID: 1255091.
- Boron Studies
Pizzorno L. Nothing Boring About Boron. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14(4):35-48.
Shea JL, Wong PY, Chen Y. Free testosterone: clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement. Adv Clin Chem. 2014;63:59-84. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800094-6.00002-9. PMID: 24783351.
Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asgari AR, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MS. Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011 Jan;25(1):54-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Dec 3. PMID: 21129941.
- Luteolin Studies
Lu DF, Yang LJ, Wang F, Zhang GL. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19). J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 29;60(34):8411-8. doi: 10.1021/jf3022817. Epub 2012 Aug 20. PMID: 22838964.
Nordeen SK, Bona BJ, Jones DN, Lambert JR, Jackson TA. Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin. Horm Cancer. 2013;4(5):293-300. doi:10.1007/s12672-013-0150-1